top of page

C3S Occasional Paper III: Deciphering Conundrum Of ‘—Lateralism’ in Context of Ind

Updated: Sep 1, 2022

Image Courtesy: Wikimedia Commons

C3S Occasional Paper: 03/2021

An occasional Paper is a single topic research summary of the knowledge surrounding an issue or a problem. It summarises the issue giving clear, concise, and complete information describing all facets of a particular issue including a detailed illustration in the form of images, data, and facts. It also includes recommendations for action and predictions on the future course of an issue.

Occasional Papers are available for download as PDFs.


We all have seen various strategies like Non-alignment, Eastern Block, Western Block, Unilateralism, Bilateralism, Multilateralism, etc. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Post break up of the USSR and sort of end of the cold war global situation underwent significant changes. Further, with increasing economic dependencies and globalization effect relationships between the countries started becoming more complex. They took many forms like Bi-Multi lateral relationships. Then came the changes necessitated by China’s hegemonic behaviour in the South China Sea, its aggressive maritime operations in Indian Ocean Region (IOR), which triggered initiatives like QUAD—another colour to relationship between the countries. On this background, it has become important to understand the forms of relationships between the countries and their features. This article will accordingly examine concepts like Non-alignment, Unilateralism, Bilateralism, Multilateralism, and now mini-lateralism, operative contours of each, and examine the best course of action for India.

Keywords: Multilateralism, Bilateralism, Unilateralism, International Relationships, Non-alignment, Minilateralism, India, China, USA, QUAD

Read the full PDF at this link:

Download PDF • 730KB

About the Author

Cmde S L Deshmukh, Author at Defence Research and Studies

(Commodore SL Deshmukh, NM (Retd), has served the Indian Navy for 32 years and Member, C3S. Alumni of the prestigious Defence Services Staff College Wellington, he has served on-board aircraft carriers and is specialized in fighter aircraft and ASW helicopters. He held many operational and administrative appointments including Principal Director at Naval HQ, Commodore Superintendent at Naval Aircraft Yard, Director, Naval Institute of Aeronautical Technology, and Project Director of a major Naval Aviation Project. Post-retirement he was with Tata Group for 5 years and is currently working with SUN Group‘s Aerospace & Defence vertical as Senior Vice President. He is also a Life Member of the Aeronautical Society of India. The views expressed in this occasional paper are the author’s own and does not reflect the views of C3S)

80 views0 comments


bottom of page